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Citing Help

Common Scenarios in Citing Business Sources in APA

The APA style manual covers many major publication types, but business databases present unique challenges for citation. When stating from where you retrieved the information, the only URLs you should give are those on the open Internet (as opposed to URLs from sites that require you to login).

Be sure to check with your instructor for any specific citation requirements.


Company or Industry Profile

Most profiles do not have a personal author name, but you can use the corporate name of the publisher or database instead. Notice that you designate what kind of information this is in the square brackets. If you can't find a date, use n.d. instead.

  • Mergent Intellect. (n.d.). Starbucks Corporation [Company profile]. Retrieved from Mergent Intellect database.

  • PrivCo Media, LLC. (2018). Mary Kay profile and business model [Company profile]. Retrieved from PrivCo database.


Company or Association Websites

Typically, there is no individual author for a company or association website, so the company is the corporate author. The italicized title is the name of the webpage or web article. If the content is not dated, use "n.d." instead.

  • Ford Motor Company. (2009). About Ford. Retrieved from

  • National Restaurant Association. (2015). Restaurant performance index.  Retrieved from Research/Research/


Press Release

You can usually find an author of a press release. Use a specific date rather than just the year. You may have retrieved a press release from a website or from a database, and the citation should reflect that.

  • Franco, J. (2010, November 11). Four in five adults say that being able to charge their devices wirelessly would make life easier. Retrieved from


IBISWorld Report

When an author name is listed, use it in your reference. If an author isn't listed, use the name of the report, being sure to include the Industry Report number in brackets.

  • Sayler, B. (2018, March). Coffee & snack shops in Canada (Industry Report 72221bCA). Retrieved from IBISWorld database.


Note: If using NoodleTools to create your reference list, choose the following options to cite an IBISWorld report:​

  • Database
  • Original Content in Database
  • Don't enter a URL (the URL for IBISWorld is temporary and won't be accessible at a later time)
  • In the Title box, enter the report title and, in parentheses, the words Industry Report followed by the report number (see example above)

If you use a citing tool other than NoodleTools to create your reference list, the formatting may be different. Check with your instructor to ensure it meets requirements.


Social Media

The owner of the page is the author and the social media platform is the title if it is a page in LinkedIn or Facebook.  For Twitter, the title is the actual tweet. You should indicate the date you retrieved it as well.

  • American Marketing Association. (2017). LinkedIn. Retrieved October 29, 2017 from‐marketing‐association

  • ACC Library. (2019, April 23). Come out for Cram Jam today! We're open late to help students get ready for exams or work on projects. Reduce stress by cuddling with some furry friends and enjoy free pizza snacks! [Tweet]. Retrieved April 24, 2019 from


Stock Quotes

The author is the stock exchange name from which you got the price. Notice that you need to be specific about the date, since prices change constantly. In the section for where you retrieved it, state where you found it with a database name if behind authentication or with a URL if on the open Internet.

  • NYSE. (2015, June 24). Starbucks Corporation [Stock quote and chart]. Retrieved October 30, 2017 from

Adapted and used with permission from Southern Methodist University Library.